Naming History

Centaur recommissioned at Devonport on 3 September 1958, under the command of Captain Horace Law. Following the completion of post-refit ship trials in the Channel and South-West Approaches in November, she embarked her air group in preparation for her flying trials, which included visits from both Sea Vixens and Scimitars as well as two Gannet AEW3s. In January 1959 she embarked her full air-group, consisting of fourteen Hawker Sea Hawk FGA6s of 801 Squadron, eight Sea Venom FAW22s of 891 Squadron, eight Westland Whirlwind HS7s of 845 Squadron and four Douglas Skyraider AEW1s of D Flight 849 Squadron. The WHO officially withdrew its previous safe levels in 2011 after reviewing the available research. Studies on lead safety and lead migration from leaded glass into food from before 2011 will often cite lead tolerable intake levels greater than zero.


George Ravenscroft (1618–1681) was the first to produce clear lead crystal glassware on an industrial scale. With the aid of Venetian glassmakers, especially da Costa, and under the auspices of the Worshipful Company of Glass Sellers of London, Ravenscroft sought to find an alternative to Venetian cristallo. His use of flint as the silica source has led to the term flint glass to describe these crystal glasses, despite his later switch to sand. At first, his glasses tended to crizzle, developing a network of small cracks destroying its transparency, which was eventually overcome by replacing some of the potash flux with lead oxide to the melt, up to 30%. Crizzling results from the destruction of the glass network by an excess of alkali, and may be caused by excess humidity as well as inherent defects in glass composition.

Naming History

Ideally, the glaze contraction should be 5–15% less than the body contraction, as glazes are stronger under compression than under tension. A high-lead glaze has a linear expansion coefficient of between 5 and 7×10−6/°C, compared to 9 to 10×10−6/°C for alkali glazes.


In this first systematic treatise on glass, he again refers to the use of lead glass in enamels, glassware, and for the imitation of precious stones. Christopher Merrett translated this into English in 1662 , paving the way for the production of English lead crystal glass by George Ravenscroft. In medieval and early modern Europe, lead glass was used as a base in coloured glasses, specifically in mosaic tesserae, enamels, stained-glass painting, and bijouterie, where it was used to imitate precious stones. In the late 11th-early 12th century, Schedula Diversarum Artium , the author known as “Theophilus Presbyter” describes its use as imitation gemstone, and the title of a lost chapter of the work mentions the use of lead in glass. The 12–13th century pseudonymous “Heraclius” details the manufacture of lead enamel and its use for window painting in his De coloribus et artibus Romanorum . This refers to lead glass as “Jewish glass”, perhaps indicating its transmission to Europe. A manuscript preserved in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, describes the use of lead oxide in enamels and includes recipes for calcining lead to form the oxide.


The operation was a success and the rest of the mutineers surrendered, with the main culprits being arrested. dotbig reviews Many Tanganyikans were jubilant when the country was restored to a stable and peaceful condition.

  • The high refractive index is useful for lens making, since a given focal length can be achieved with a thinner lens.
  • By 1800, Irish lead crystal had overtaken lime-potash glasses on the Continent, and traditional glassmaking centres in Bohemia began to focus on colored glasses rather than compete directly against it.
  • In practice this meant a total fleet of five to six ships, allowing for refits, modernisation and training.
  • reserves the right to make additions, deletions, or modification to the contents on the Website at any time without prior notice.

Lead glass was ideally suited for enamelling vessels and windows owing to its lower working temperature than the forest glass of the body. Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40% lead oxide , while modern lead crystal, historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% PbO.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *